Skip to main content

History-of Ranchi

Block Builder

Home / History of Ranchi

History of Ranchi

In early times the territory which parallels to the district of Ranchi and the neighbouring parganas was in the unbroken possession of Munda and Oraon tribes and was known to Aryans as Jharkhand or the ‘forest territory’.

With the weakening of Mauryan power, King Kharavels of Kalinga led on army through Jharkhand and plundered Rajgriha and Patliputra. Similarly, Mahapadmanand Agrasen of Magadh, who restrained the entire country up to Orrisa, might have grown some control over Jharkhand as well.However, Jarasandh, the mighty emperor of Rajgriha in the Mahabharat period might have drilled loose supervision over the area. The Chotanagpur Raj is believed to have been set up in fifth century A.D. after the tumble of the imperial Guptas.

This compelled an expedition in 1616 by Ibrahim Khan, Fateh Jang, Governor of Bihar and brother of Queen Noorjahan, Ibrahim Khan defeated and captured Durian Sal, the 46th Raja of Chotanagpur. Sar Balland Khan, the Governor of Bihar, marched against the Raja of Chotanagpur and forced his submission. The Chotanagpur plateau was referred to as Jharkhand by the Muhammedan historians. In 1632 Chotanagpur was as Jagir to the Governor at Patna for an annual payment of Rs. 1,36,000.00. In 1585, Akbar sent a force under the command of Shahabaz Khan to reduce the Raja of Chotanagpur to the position of a tributary.

Graham’s contigent returned to the army station at Doranda and successfully exhorted the Sepoys there to rise against British authority. In view of this, Col.Dalton left Ranchi for Hazaribagh. The district played an important role in the national freedom movement. The non-Cooperation movement in Ranchi district followed the pattern as elsewhere in India. The non-Cooperation movement launched by Jatra Oraon and his associates soon spread even to Palamu and Hazaribagh. The movement caught the imagination of the people particularly the Tana Bhagats and a large number of them attended the Gaya session of the congress in December 1922 which was presided over by Deshbandhu Chittranjan Das. The earliest Christian missionaries reached the district in 1845 and the first conversions of the tribal population to Christianity took place in 1850. The Tana Bhagat movement, as it was called, also had its genesis in agrarian issues and particularly the economic disparity between Christian converts and the traditional or sansari Oraons. The movement led by Birsa Munda was half agrarian and half religious, it had a direct connection with agrarian unrest and also appeared to have been influenced by Christian ideas. Ranchi was the venue of a meeting between Mahatma Gandhi and Sir Edward Albert Gait, Lieutenant Governor of Bihar and Orrisa on 4th June and again on 22nd Sept.1917 in the context of the Champaran Indigo planter’s repressive measures against the raiyats of that district. This was a part of the constructive programme launched by Mahatma Gandhi after he had suspended the non-cooperation Movement in 1922. Agrarian discontent against the imposition of begari (forced labour) and illegal enhancement of rent by the intermediaries resulted in the Sardari agitation, so called due to the instigation and leadership provided by the Sardars. These Tana Bhagats returned home deeply impressed with the message of freedom Movement. The district of Ranchi was not directly included in this unit but was added under the designation of Tributory Mahal of Chotanagpur. Ranchi has attracted many Christian missions which have contributed much to the growth of education in the district. During the operations of Captain Camac against the Raja of Palamu, Dhupnath Shahi, Raja of Chotanagpur rendered useful service to British. But, after the formation of the state of Jharkhand on 15 November 2000, the district became the first district of the newly formed state. Lohardaga district was created from a portion of Ranchi district in 1983. After India achieved Independence, Ranchi district was included in the state of Bihar. Later, Khunti district was carved out of Ranchi district on 12 September 2007.




Ranchi City Profile

Ranchi is located on the southern part of the Chota Nagpur plateau which forms the eastern edge of the Deccan plateau. Ranchi is referred to as the "City of Waterfalls", due to the presence of numerous large and small falls of around the close vicinity of the city.
“Archi” means Bamboo forest in local Nagpuri dialect. The British inadvertently named "Archi" as "Ranchi". According to another local story, the name of Ranchi comes from local bird named "Rici" which was mostly found in the "pahadi mandir premise". Up to 1927, the place was known as Ranchi.
It was the central area for Jharkhand Movement and later divided from Bihar, into a tribal state from the regains of south Bihar, northern Orissa, western Bengal and eastern area of Chhattisgarh and the state formed on 15 November 2000 by craving out the Bihar divisions of Chota Nagpur and Santhal Parganas. 

1.    Tourist Places and Historical Places

  • Panchghagh Fall
  • Hundru Fall
  • Dassam Fall 
  • Jonah Fall
  • Sita Fall 
  • Patratu Valley
  • Birsa Zoological Park 
  • Biodiversity Park
  • Rock Garden 
  • Tagore Hill 
  • Pahari Mandir 
  • Jagannathpur Temple 
  • Dewari Mandir
  • Gossner Evangelical Lutheran Church
  • Ratu Palace
  • St. Mary’s Cathedral

Ranchi is also famous for its tourist attractions especially for water falls and Historic Places like:   

2.    Education & Sports 

There are many Colleges and Institutions of higher education in Ranchi, such as;

  •     Indian Institute of Management Ranchi
  •     Indian Institute of Information Technology
  •     National University of Study Research in Law
  •     National Institute of Foundry and Forge Technology
  •     Central Institute of Psychiatry
  •     Indian Institute of Coal Management
  •     Indian Institute of Legal Metrology
  •     Central University
  •     Birla Institute of Technology, Meshra
  •     Xavier’s Institute of Social Services
  •     Birla Institute of Technology Extension
  •     Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences
  •     Birsa Agriculture University
  •     Ranchi Veterinary College
  •     Jharkhand Raksha Shakti University
  •     Ranchi University
  •     Chota Nagpur Law College
  •     Amity University
  •     Rai University
  •     ICFAI University
  •     Usha Martin University
  •     Indian Institute of Management Studies

Ranchi is a centre of numerous sports activities. The 34th National Games was successfully held at Ranchi in Feb 2011.
There are many sports team and stadiums in Ranchi:


  •    Ranchi Rays
  •    Ranchi Rhino


     Stadium in Ranchi

  •     JSCA International Cricket Stadium
  •     Birsa Munda Hockey Stadium
  •     Birsa Munda Football Stadium
  •     Birsa Munda Athletics Stadium
  •     Jaipal Singh Stadium
  •     MECON Stadium


3    Food & Recipes

  •      Ranchi is also famous for its Foods & Recipes like; 
  •     Dhuska
  •     Koinar Saag
  •     Green Saag
  •     Dubri Grass 
  •     Kurthi dal
  •     Litti Chokha
  •     Pittha
  •     Khapara Roti
  •     Mitha Pittha
  •     Kudurum Chatney

These are the Famous recipes of the state which are preferred by the local people of Ranchi.


4.    Industries

 Important Industrial Centre in the state of Jharkhand. Large number of Engineering & Mining Industries are present in Ranchi, which delivers in particular and attracts talent of the country in general, large numbers of employment to the local people and graduate students of Jharkhand.
The existing Rural Industries are, service culture, Handlooms, Handicraft, Khadi, Textile etc.
Some of the most important and well renowned industries focused in export activities are given below and contributes to India GDP too;

  •     Heavy Engineering Corporation (H.E.C)
  •     MECON (Metallurgical & Engineering Consultants) (India) Ltd.
  •     SAIL (Steel Authorities of India)
  •     CCL (Central Coal Fields)
  •     Pragati Chemicals 
  •     Bharat Mineral and Ceramic Industries Ltd.
  •     Waxpol Industries Ltd.
  •     Pelriwal Hydro Carbon & Chemicals Private Ltd.
  •     Balaji Wire Industries 
  •     Shivnarayan Jaiswal Private Ltd.
  •     Chotanagpur Rope Works Private Ltd


5.    Airport and Rail Network

Birsa Munda Airport is also known as Ranchi Airport, is the primary airport serving the city of Ranchi. The airport is located at Hinoo, approximately 5 km (3.1 mi) from the city centre. The airport sprawls over an area of 1568 acres. The airport is used by more than 2.4 million passengers annually and is the 25th busiest airport in India. The details of the Airport and its structure are mentioned below with the daily passengers commute per day/year, also with the number of flights movement and other essential services with Cargo movement details listed below:

























Statistics (April (2019) – March (2020))

Passenger movements

2,485,293 Increase10.3

Aircraft movements

19,137 Increase13.4

Cargo tonnage


Source: Source: AAI[1][2] 


The Flights connection with metropolitan cities and states in a daily basis, which attracts more commuters towards the time saving pattern. It also enhances the daily business priority. Tourist Commuters are easy to reach by selecting the options of flying.

The cities which are connected with flights are listed below:




AirAsia India


Air India










Railways Connections: 

Ranchi Junction railway station and Hatia Railway Station, Ranchi Junction is located close to the bus terminal and domestic airport providing transport to important destinations of Jharkhand. Hatia station has the headquarters of the Ranchi division of the South Eastern Railway zone of the Indian Railways. The Ranchi Junction railway station is connected to most of the major cities in India by the railway network. The city is a major railway hub and has two major stations: Ranchi Junction and Hatia. 
It has trains running frequently train connectivity to Delhi, Kolkata and Patna. There are 5 platforms at Ranchi Junction. The platforms are interconnected with two foot-over-bridge (FOB) and an escalator.